a psychological illness characterized by an extreme impulse to dance, prevalent in southern Italy from the 15th to the 17th century, and widely believed at the time to be caused by the bite of a tarantula.
mid 17th century: from Italian tarantismo, from the name of the seaport Taranto, after which the tarantula is also named. Compare with tarantella
tarantism in other Oxford dictionaries
Definition of tarantism in the US English dictionary